Eur J Immunol. 2007 Aug;37(8):2156-63.
HIV-1 induced generation of C5a attracts immature dendriticcells and promotes infection of autologous T cells.
Soederholm A, Bánki Z, Wilflingseder D, Gassner C, Zwirner J, López-Trascasa M, Falkensammer B, Dierich MP, Stoiber H.
For the recruitment of dendritic cells (DC) to the site of infection, DC express several sensors for danger signals, such as receptors for C5a. This anaphylatoxin is generated upon complement activation. As HIV-1 triggers the complement cascade, we determined whether C5a is generated by the virus and tested the functional activity of C5a in migration and infection assays. The immature (i)DC responded in migration assays to recombinant C5a and native C5a, which was generated in situ upon activation of the complement system by HIV-1. In combined migration and infection assays, a C5a-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection in DC-T cell cocultures was observed. These results indicate that HIV induces generation of C5a and thereby attracts iDC, which in turn promote the productive infection of autologous primary T cells.